That trend of rising temperatures with altitude means that air in the stratosphere lacks the turbulence and updrafts of the troposphere beneath.
It is also where the space shuttle orbits. However, volcanic eruptions also release carbon dioxide, which plants can convert to oxygen. The refractive index of air depends on temperature,  giving rise to refraction effects when the temperature gradient is large.
A single chlorine atom is able to react with an average ofozone molecules before it is removed from the catalytic cycle.
PSCs are also called nacreous clouds. This is why the sky looks blue; you are seeing scattered blue light. Air is roughly a thousand times thinner at the top of the stratosphere than it is at sea level.
Systematic variations in refractive index can lead to the bending of light rays over long optical paths. A year earlier, Richard Stolarski and Ralph Cicerone at the University of Michigan had shown that Cl is even more efficient than NO at catalyzing the destruction of ozone.
The ozone molecule is unstable although, in the stratosphere, long-lived and when ultraviolet light hits ozone it splits into a molecule of O2 and an individual atom of oxygen, a continuing process called the ozone-oxygen cycle.
Visible light, television and FM wavelengths are all too short to be reflected by the ionosphere. Excluding the exosphere, the atmosphere has four primary layers, which are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. Because of its temperature, the atmosphere emits infrared radiation.
Antarctic ozone hole[ edit ] The discovery of the Antarctic "ozone hole" by British Antarctic Survey scientists FarmanGardiner and Shanklin first reported in a paper in Nature in May  came as a shock to the scientific community, because the observed decline in polar ozone was far larger than anyone had anticipated.
October See also: If the entire mass of the atmosphere had a uniform density from sea level, it would terminate abruptly at an altitude of 8. The key observation is that, ordinarily, most of the chlorine in the stratosphere resides in "reservoir" compounds, primarily chlorine nitrate ClONO 2 as well as stable end products such as HCl.
History of Earth and Paleoclimatology Earliest atmosphere The first atmosphere consisted of gases in the solar nebulaprimarily hydrogen. However, temperature has a more complicated profile with altitude, and may remain relatively constant or even increase with altitude in some regions see the temperature section, below.
The decrease in ozone-depleting chemicals has also been significantly affected by a decrease in bromine -containing chemicals.
The lower height of the peak-concentration region in the high latitudes largely results from poleward and downward atmospheric transport processes that occur in the middle and high latitudes and the reduced height of the tropopause the transition region between the troposphere and stratosphere.
The limited scientific knowledge of the public led to a confusion with global warming  or the perception of global warming as a subset of the "ozone hole".
Ozone is transparent to most UV-A, so most of this longer-wavelength UV radiation reaches the surface, and it constitutes most of the UV reaching the Earth. Most of the weather occurs in the first layer. Much of the blue light has been scattered out, leaving the red light in a sunset. The upper part of the heterosphere is composed almost completely of hydrogen, the lightest element.
It is calculated that a CFC molecule takes an average of about five to seven years to go from the ground level up to the upper atmosphere, and it can stay there for about a century, destroying up to one hundred thousand ozone molecules during that time.
The stratosphere defines a layer in which temperatures rise with increasing altitude. The ozone layer can be depleted by free radical catalysts, including nitric oxide NOnitrous oxide N2Ohydroxyl OHatomic chlorine Cland atomic bromine Br. In addition, increased surface UV leads to increased tropospheric ozone, which is a health risk to humans.
The ozone layer can be depleted by free radical catalysts, including nitric oxide NOnitrous oxide N2Ohydroxyl OHatomic chlorine Cland atomic bromine Br. The aurora, the Northern Lights and Southern Lights, occur in the thermosphere.
So technically, the ionosphere is not another atmospheric layer. The Rowland—Molina hypothesis was strongly disputed by representatives of the aerosol and halocarbon industries. Most meteors burn up in the mesosphere. They were used in air conditioning and cooling units, as aerosol spray propellants prior to the s, and in the cleaning processes of delicate electronic equipment.
The mesosphere is mainly accessed by sounding rockets and rocket-powered aircraft. When the Sun is active, more and more ionization happens.
Because of this, the top of the thermosphere can be found anywhere between and 1, km to miles above the ground. The stratosphere is located above the top of the the troposphere.
Troposphere The troposphere is the lowest layer of our atmosphere. The atmosphere is divided into five layers. It is thickest near the surface and thins out with height until it eventually merges with space. 1) The troposphere is the first layer above the surface and contains half of the Earth's atmosphere.
Weather occurs in this layer. 2) Many jet aircrafts fly in the stratosphere because it is very stable.
Also, the ozone layer absorbs harmful rays from the. The layer of the atmosphere just above the lowest layer of the atmosphere, known for its strong, steady winds, but few weather changes is the.
exosphere magnetosphere. The atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and other gases (1%) that surrounds Earth. High above the planet, the atmosphere becomes thinner until it gradually reaches space. It is divided into five layers.
Most of the weather and clouds are found in the first layer. The atmosphere. Ozone layer: Ozone layer, region of the upper atmosphere, between roughly 15 and 35 km (9 and 22 miles) above Earth’s surface, containing relatively high concentrations of ozone molecules.
Approximately 90 percent of the atmosphere’s ozone occurs from 10–18 km (6–11 miles) to about 50 km (about 30 miles) above Earth’s surface.
The troposphere is the lowest layer of our atmosphere. Starting at ground level, it extends upward to about 10 km ( miles or about 33, feet) above sea level. Starting at ground level, it extends upward to about 10 km ( miles or about 33, feet) above sea level. Ozone depletion describes two related events observed since the late s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere (the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.An overview of the ozone layer in the earths atmosphere